In this article, Explaining biodiversity in living world & Nomenclatureir first of all we will discuss Biodiversity existing in the world nowadays and also researches of different scientists such as Linnaeus and A P De Candole, etc.
there will be discussion related to the facts of biodiversity and certain factors of biodiversity in living world.
Word biodiversity is termed by W.G. Rosen. taken from the word diversity
Biodiversity explains the biological diversity.
And the nomenclature of these species, how they are named and what naming system is used.
Facts related to Explaining biodiversity in living world & nomenclature:
- total 1.7 million species are known and described in biological diversity, out of these 1.7 million, 1.2 million are animals and rest 0.5 million are plants.
- Insecta is the most diverse group among invertebrates and the total no. of discovered species of Insecta is 10,25,000.
- The fungus is the most diverse group among Plantae.
- Maximum diversity is found on the coral reefs.
- Tropics have the maximum diversity in the terrestrial ecosystem.
Classification in biodiversity: Grouping on the basis of similarities and dissimilarities.
1. Taxonomy:- The tern introduced by A.P. De Candolle. Taxonomy is a principle and procedure of classification which involves the following,
Taxonomy = Identification + Nomenclature + classification
2. Systematics:- It is a type of taxonomy along with phylogeny.
Old systematics/taxonomy/classical taxonomy/descriptive.
Taxonomy based on morphological characters only.
Modern taxonomy is based on morphological characters along with internal characters, like cytology, embryology, physiology, and ecology.
Linnaeus termed Systematics, he is also known as “Father of Taxonomy”.
Some special terms used in biodiversity of living world and their meanings:-
*Ontogeny:- Life history of an organism
*Phylogeny:- Evolutionary history of an organism.
NOTE- Ontogeny repeats phylogeny or phylogeny is repeated by ontogeny.
New/Neo/biosystematics:- This term was introduced by Julian Huxley.
It involves all the possible characters for classification of living beings.
Includes all characters along with genetics and evolution.
NOMENCLATURE:- naming system
- Vernacular names → local (or) regional names vary from person to person and place to place [this rule is not valid].
- Scientific names → these are of the following types:
a) Bionomical nomenclature: it was first discovered by Caspard Bulatin in his book “Pinax” theater botanica. But, it was elaborated or well explained by Carolus Linnaeus [Karl von linnae].
Some books written by Linnaeus →
1st book- “Philosophia Botanica”; In this book, he introduced rules and regulations of nomenclature.
2nd book- “Systema natural”; in this book, he introduced nomenclature of animals.
3rd book- “Species Plantarum”; in this book, he introduced nomenclature of plants.
Some full forms:-
*ICBN → International code for botanical nomenclature
*ICZN → International code for zoological nomenclature
*ICNB → International code for nomenclature of bacteria
*ICTV → International committee for taxonomy of virus
*ICNCP → International code for nomenclature of cultivated plants.
Now rules of nomenclature:- According to ICBN scientific name consists of 2 words
1)The first epithet represents the name of genus and second epithet represents the name of species.
2)The first letter of generic name should be in capital letter and the first letter of a species name is small letter.
NOTE: exceptionally species name start with capital if it is based on name of any scientist (or) person.
3)first of all both generic and species name should be underlined separately or printed in Italics and It represents their Latin origin.
4) Scientific name should be in Latin language because it is a dead language due to the absence of synonym.
Law of priority: The most important rule of the bionomical system
The first name is considered as a valid name and the second one is considered as a synonym.
Tautonyms:- Some scientific names having similar generic and specific name for example;
Naja naja → Cobra
Rattus rattus → Rat
Gazella gazella → Musk deer
Gorilla gorilla → Gorilla
these are valid only for animal nomenclature.
Name of the scientist should be written after specific name in the abbreviative form and Roman letters.
Trinomial Nomenclature:- Introduced by Huxley and Strickland
according to this scientific name is consists of 3 words
Autonyms- Scientific name having similar specific and subspecificic names. valid for both plants and animals.
Homonyms- Similar scientific names for two different plants.
example- Prunus dulei→ almond and date palm
The conclusion of Explaining biodiversity in living world & Nomenclature:-
Hence, in Explaining biodiversity in living world & Nomenclature we learned about taxonomy and how scientific names are given to organisms.