 # Properties of system and Thermodynamic process

• In today’s article, we are going to study about ‘Properties of system and Thermodynamic process’. We will discuss thermodynamic equilibrium, types of thermodynamics equilibrium, properties of System, classification of System, Thermodynamic process, types of thermodynamic process etc in detail. So, take your notebooks in you hand and get ready to study physics in an easy and sorted way.

## Thermodynamic Equilibrium

When any observable property of macroscopic properties like temperature, pressure etc. does not change with time then the system is in thermodynamic equilibrium.

Thermodynamic equilibrium consists of three types of equilibria.

1. Thermal equilibrium- A system is in thermal equilibrium if there is no flow of heat from one part of the system to another. This is possible only when the temperature of all parts of the system is uniform.
2. Mechanical equilibrium- A system is in mechanical equilibrium when no mechanical work is done by one part of System to another part. This is possible only when the pressure of the system is uniform.
3. Chemical equilibrium- A system is in chemical equilibrium if the composition of the different phases does not change with time and is uniform throughout the system.

It means a system is said to be in thermodynamical equilibrium when the state variable such as temperature, pressure, and concentration of all the components of the system are uniform throughout the system and do not change with time.

### Properties of System

Properties of System can be divided into two classes-

1. Extensive properties- The properties which depend upon the matter or quantity of matter of the system are called extensive properties. The example is mass, volume, energy, number of molecules, the amount of heat, capacity, entropy, internal energy etc.
2. Intensive properties- The properties which are independent of the quantity of matter of the system are called intensive properties. The examples are temperature, pressure, density, concentration, viscosity, surface tension, specific heat. Along with that, some other examples are the refractive index, dipole moment, dielectric constant, boiling point, freezing point etc.

An extensive property becomes an intensive property- when it is taken in the unit mass of the system. For example, mass and volume are extensive properties but mass per unit volume (density) is an intensive property.

Some more examples are shown in the following table. ### Thermodynamic Process

The process by which a system changes from one state to another is called a process. The following types of process are known-

#### 1) Isothermal process

A process is known to be isothermal if the temperature of the system remains the same during each stage of the process. In other words, the change in temperature is zero in an isothermal process. If the temperature is T. Internal energy of the system also remains constant in an isothermal process.

#### 2) Isobaric Process

A process is known to be Isobaric if the pressure to the system remains constant during each stage of the process. If the process of System is P then for Isobaric Process dP=0.

#### 3) Isochoric process

A process is said to be Isochoric if the volume of the system remains constant during each stage of the process. For this dV=0.

A process is said to be Adiabatic if no heat enters or leaves the system during any stage of the process. If heat is represented by then for adiabatic process dq=0.

#### 5) Cyclic process

If a system returns to its initial stage after a chain of processes, it is said to be the cyclic process.

#### 6) Path

The process of reaching for the system from initial to the final state is called the path of the system. For example conversion of water from 50°C to 100°, C water vapour at one atmospheric pressure can be shown by the following path-

H2O (l, 25°C, 1 atm) initial stage →H2O (l, 50°C, 1 atm) →H2O (l, 75°C , 1atm) → H2O (Vapour, 100°C , 1atm) final stage

#### 7) Reversible and Irreversible Process

• A process carried out infinitesimally slowly so that the driving force is only infinitesimally greater than the opposing force, is called reversible process.
• Any process other than reversible process i.e. which does not take place infinitesimally slowly is called an irreversible process.
• The reversible process is ideal cannot be achieved practically. Since it is not possible to make infinitesimal small changes in the system. However certain important conclusion may be drawn from the idea of reversibility.
• Following table shows the comparison between reversible and irreversible processes. ### Conclusion

So our article is finished and after completely reading this article, one can easily tell ‘Properties of system and Thermodynamic process’ . We had discussed thermodynamic equilibrium, types of thermodynamics equilibrium, properties of System, classification of System, Thermodynamic process, types of thermodynamic process etc in detail

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