Introduction

In today’s article, we are going to study about ‘ radioactivity ‘ How beneficial it is and what is theory of Radioactivity. And hence We will also read about some more topics like radioactivity, the α- decay(alpha) , the β-decay, and the γ-decay, nature of radioactive rays, properties of α- decay, properties of β- particle, properties of γ etc in Detail.  So, take your notebooks in you hand and get ready to study physics in an easy and sorted way.

Radioactivity

The phenomenon of spontaneous disintegration of nucleus of a atom is known as radioactivity. And The material which disintegration the radiation is called radioactive. And also This is discovered by Henry Becquerel (1996). There are three types of radioactive decay, hence,

  1. α-decay
  2. β-decay
  3. γ-decay

Nature of radioactive rays-

Radioactivity

  • In 1902 Rutherford study these radioactive rays. And He found that when these rays passing through electric and magnetic field then these ray divided into three parts. And One part of these ray is deflected towards the negative plate (cathode). There rays is known as α-particle.
  • Hence Second part of these rays is deflected towards the positive plate (anode). These rays is known as β-particle.
  • Third part of these rays are got straight called gamma rays.
  • Similar Experiment is carried out in the presence of magnetic field these rays also devided into three parts.

Property of α-particle

  1. α-particle are helium nuclei. The charge of He particle is twice of proton and its mass is four times heavy then proton.
  2. The speed of the He particle is 1/10 times of light velocity.
  3. The ionisation power of α-particle is very high it is 10,000 times parts of gamma rays and 100 times of β-rays.
  4. Penetration power of α-particle is very small they can stop by 0.1mm thick Al foil.
  5. α-particle shows scattering by gold foil.
  6. α-particle shows a shining on Zn sulphate screen.

Property of β- particle-

  1. β- particle have been found to be stream of electrons.
  2. The velocity of β- particles ranges from 33% to 99% of the velocity of light.
  3. The β- particle ionise the gas through which they pass, but their ionising power is only 1/100th that of α-particle.
  4. Because of small mass, the penetrating power of β- particle is very large, they can easily pass through the α- particle.
  5. The range of β- particle in air is several meters.
  6. They affect a photographic plate.

Properties of γ- rays

  1. They are not deflected by electric and magnetic fields, because they have neutral charge.
  2. γ-γ- ra travel with the speed of light i.e. 3×10^-8 or 10^-3.
  3. γ- rays have very large penetration power. They can pass through several centimetres of iron and lead.
  4. γ -rays have got small ionising power.
  5. And γ -rays can produce fluoresence in a substance like cuillimite.
  6. γ -rays can cause nucleus reaction.
Conclusion

So our article is finished and after completely reading this article, one can easily tell what is radioactivity. And we have also discussed some more topics radioactivity, α decay, β decay and γ-decay, nature of radioactive rays, properties of α- decay, properties of β- particle, properties of γ etc.

‌So one can say that they got a detailed information about Radioactivity, and basic information about other topics.

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