In today’s article, we are going to study about ‘ Rutherford experiment ‘ How beneficial it is and what is theory of Rutherford experiment. And hence We will also read about some more topics like Rutherford experiment, Rutherford Nuclear model of atom, Rutherford atomic model, drawbacks of Rutherford experiment, conclusion of Rutherford experiment etc in Detail. So, take your notebooks in you hand and get ready to study physics in an easy and sorted way.
Rutherford experiment/ Rutherford Nuclear model of Atom
At the suggestion of Rutherford in 1911 H geiger, E marsdon perform some Experiment. They have taken a radioactive source for creating a α- particle beam. And This beam is incident upon the gold foil and they observes result.
1) Experimental setup of Rutherford Nuclear model of Atom
α- particle source – They have taken a radioactive source barium (Bi 83) into a lead box. And This radioactive source generate α- particles. Thus α- particle is converted into a narrow beam by using two lead bricks as shown in the fig.
2) Target – A very thin thickness order of (10^-7m) a very thin gold foil is used for targeting of α- particle beam. And hence Gold is suitable for scattering target because its nucleus is very heavy and we can create a very thin gold foil by gold. And it is also a ductile material.
3) Detector– Scattered particle was incident on a zinc sulphate screen. And, Here they will give a light spark. Hence, This light spark is measured by microscope.
- Most of the α- particle passes through the gold foil without deflecting. They have travelled straight through the gold foil.
- Few of particle is scattered more than 90° angle. The number of these particle is one from the 8000 incident particle.
- A very few particle or a single particle from about 1 lakh of incident particle is return back on its incident path.
- Some of particle deflected by very small angle, and order of 1° from the gold foil.
Conclusion of Rutherford Nuclear model
- It was found that almost α- particles goes straight through the gold foil. That means atomic path should be hollow.
- α- particle is positively charged that means all the positive charge of atom should be found at the centre of atom.
- A very few particle return back on its incident path. And hence This phenomenon can be happen only if all the mass of atom should be found at the centre of atom.
Rutherford Atomic model
Rutherford gives a atomic model based on the observation of α- particle scattering Experiment.
- According to the Rutherford experiment, entire positive charge and mass of atom must be centered at the centre of atoms. And This center mass is known as nucleus of atom. The radius of nucleus is order of 10^-15 m.
- The electron are found around the nucleus. They are revolving around of nucleus into the all possible orbits.
Drawback of Rutherford Atomic model
- If a charged particle accelerated then it will radiate energy in the form of electromagnetic waves. Thus an electron is moving in a circular path around the nucleus. It should also radiate energy and thus smaller and smaller orbits radius gradually decreases and it should ultimately fall into the nucleus.
- It didn’t explain the distribution of electron outside the nucleus.
- According to the this model the spectrum of Atom should be continuous. But Experimental results shows the spectrum is not continuous.
So our article is finished and after completely reading this article, one can easily tell what is Rutherford experiment. And we have also discussed some more topics Rutherford experiment, Rutherford Nuclear model of atom, Rutherford atomic model, drawbacks of Rutherford experiment, conclusion of Rutherford experiment etc.
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